The district of Sagar lies in the north central region of Madhya Pradesh. It was spelled as Saugar during the British period. It is situated between 23 deg 10’ and 24 deg 27’ north latitude and between 78 deg 4’ and 79 deg 21’ east longitude, the district has a truly central location in the country. The tropic of cancer passes through the southern part of the district.
The origin of the name comes from the Hindi word SAGAR meaning lake or sea, apparently because of the large and once beautiful lake around which the town of Sagar has been built. Sagar was founded by Udan Singh in 1660 and was constituted a municipality in 1867. A major road and agricultural trade centre, it has industries such as oil and flour milling, saw-milling , ghee processing , handloom cotton weaving, bidi manufacture and railway and engineering works. It is known in all over India due to its University named as Dr. Harisingh Gaur University and Army Cantonment and recently it has come into lime light due to Bhagyodyay Tirth a charitable hospital named after a Jain Sant Shri VidyaSagarji Maharaj. It is known for Police Training College which are only two in Madhya Pradesh other one is in Indore. Head quarter of Forensic Science Lab is also in SAGAR.
Sagar lies in an extensive plain broken by low, forested hills and watered by Sonar river. Wheat, chickpeas, soghum, and oilseeds are chief crops of the region, there is extensive cattle raising. Sandstone, Limestone, iron ore and asbestos deposits are worked. The archaeological site nearby Eran has revealed several Gupta inscriptions. District Sagar is predominantly a Scheduled Caste/Backward class district. These together form about 75% of the district. The district has sizable population of tribals who are named as Rajgonds after their kingdom.